Evolution of Marketing


McDonald’s use of marketing is extensive and brilliant. The case study will evaluate McDonald’s marketing strategy and how it implements the use of the 7P’s for the promotional mix used in marketing. Text that is highlighted will open the source of the reference for your convenience I hope you enjoy the case study!

Table of Contents

Task 1 - Product

Mcdonald’s have scaled their business internationally increasing market shares but also posing new challenges. The picture above shows how they have performed market research into the demographics of the Chinese consumer market by introducing innovative products and applying product differentiation. They have achieved this by blending western and Chinese mix of food cultures to meet the needs of the market. This allows McDonald’s to hold presence within China and to tap into China’s night economy which promotes business revenue, attracts tourists and local residents.

Task 1 - Price

The company’s pricing methods aligns with their value proposition by pricing products in a cost-effective method. The emphasis of value-based pricing strategy of their products are shown by the cost of products within the year of 1955, as this could feed families for a very cheap price whilst saving customers time and energy of cooking.

It is arguable to say the overall development of McDonald’s has to increase the cost of their products due to global economic and distribution factors. However, if McDonald’s raise their prices beyond customer expectation, this could change the value-based perception of customers resulting in customers to seek alternatives for higher quality food within the same price range. The consumers are price sensitive.

Task 1 - Place

There are 40,275 McDonald’s restaurants (Statistica, 2023). McDonald’s have placed their restaurants where people populate areas such as malls, tourist attractions, trains, airports etc. This can entice customers to order from McDonald’s by positioning themselves in front of customers that are going to or coming back from work, shopping, or visiting friends in busy areas. This makes McDonald’s a convenient and accessible option to customers for food.

McDonald’s promotes 24 hours and 7 days a week opening times. Not all of it’s restaurants are able to achieve this which can cause confusion for customers, however this allows customers accessibility to McDonald’s products at any time of the day whilst other competitors are closed during night time hours. McDonald’s has enough workforce and ability to keep operations running and driving sales whilst adapting to customer needs.

Task 1 - Promotion

McDonald’s and Hasbro games formed a strategic alliance in order to orchestrate a promotion strategy that places an emphasis on sales and events promotion by creating their own crossover event.

Both McDonald’s and Monopoly target family orientated markets and both have a considerable influence over their chosen markets. Monopoly is a family friendly game that is often played with children while McDonald’s serves food to families and children. Partnership between both brands makes this the perfect crossover by implementing monopoly game within McDonald’s products through rewards and offers.

Task 1 - People

Fig 5. BC Productions. (2023) Why McDonald’s Has Their Own College [photograph/video]

McDonald’s provides further career opportunities at Hamburger University. This allows beginner staff members to advance towards bigger roles including degrees and apprenticeship opportunities whilst offering flexibility to maintain current responsibilities. This tactic can encourage staff members to become a expert within the food business industry and implement these skills within McDonald’s corporation. 

Task 1 - Process

Fig 6. Stephen Patula. (2022) McDonald’s crew member demonstrates how to make a cheeseburger  [photograph/video]

McDonald’s process is the service of fast-food delivered quickly that tastes nice with short waiting times. Every step must ensure achievable goals with a smooth process such as taking orders, cooking the food, clearing orders, taking payments and delivering the correct order to the correct customer. McDonald’s goal of achieving a smooth customer journey by making food easy to purchase and order with correct delivery can greatly reduce customer dissatisfaction. This can greatly affect customer perception of the business.

McDonald’s crew members should be trained with social interaction skills, reliable card machines, clean and functional kitchen equipment, efficiency with tracking orders accurately and showing key menu items to run their restaurants in a smooth and efficient manner. This can make customers less overwhelmed when ordering and staff members can be confident that they can achieve the desired results.

Task 1 - Physical Evidence

Fig 7. Honeysett, R. (n.d) Modern interior and exterior design in new McDonald’s Hong Kong restaurant. [photograph] (Hover over the middle of the photograph and keep clicking right)

McDonald’s is trying to achieve a more modernised and mature aesthetic. This is replaced through colour usage, equipment usage and portrayal through interior design from lights, chairs, tables, open kitchen etc. This is stripping away the brand perception from customers from a child friendly orientated restaurant to a more adult and mature restaurant by changing its overall aesthetics whilst also providing a brand new and fresh experience for customers.

Task 2 - Promotion


McDonald’s extensively uses the promotion element to attract and retain customer relationships. Communicating the correct intended message with customers and prospects to see which marketing efforts are effective is a good indicator of the brand’s success on how they can meet customer needs and wants. An excellent quality product priced well is not enough to drive growth and impact its chosen markets. McDonald’s value propositions must be communicated uniquely to its numerous target segments accordingly with clear communications to its customers (Kotler et al, 2005 p754).

Overview of how McDonald's uses TV advertisements and celebrity endorsements:

McDonald’s is considered one of the pioneers of the fast-food industry and constantly adapts its products and promotional efforts to gain market share by catering to its market segments using effective communication and adapting to cultural differences by adjusting within its marketing strategies. McDonald’s growth strategy derived from its ability to franchise itself in different locations, but it must use different marketing strategies to survive in the modern era.  One of its biggest promotional platforms is TV advertising campaigns with a budget of 398.3 million dollars spent in the year 2022 (Statistica, 2022).

For example, McDonald’s started a promotion called famous orders which included Travis Scott’s campaign as a crossover with McDonald’s introducing a meal that Travis Scott orders at McDonald’s. This creates demand amongst customers that are fans of Travis Scott which consists of 63.92% males aged between 18-24 and the majority living within America (Similarweb, 2023). McDonald’s created exclusivity and scarcity as the product promotion was only available in the United States. The advert (Full Nelson, 2020) includes Travis Scott as an animated toy speaking directly to the audience in an informal, laid-back and cool approach. The elements used within the advertisement’s communication use of language and aesthetics are effective because the listeners of Travis can relate to and understand the communication use of Travis Scott due to his recognition and cultural impact within the Gen-Z and Millennial generation’s choice of music.

McDonald’s would also need to be careful of who they endorse as negative publicity of the celebrity can impact the customer relationship and perception for McDonald’s.

McDonald’s promotion success in its earlier days was led by Ray Kroc. The restaurant openings were determined by the population and geographical location and hiring franchisees to run the restaurants. This allowed McDonald’s to spread its locations across America to be accessible by customers (McDonald’s, 2020 please see slide 10). McDonald’s included traditional marketing tactics such as bright neon lights, road signs, newspaper articles, brochures and word of mouth. 

The change in market forces and behavior of customers demands rose especially with delivery orders. McDonald’s has catered to the change in market forces by offering delivery services, table qr services, and collection services through mobile phones. The mobile phone application is a massive advantage as customers have adopted mobile phones. McDonald’s have adapted to the change by creating an application that allows customers to order through mobile phones and earn rewards.

McDonald’s uses a variety of advertising and promotional tactics to communicate to customers such as TV advertisements, YouTube ads, radio advertisement and social media pay per click ads. McDonald’s has also tapped into the power of social media and word of mouth as an example of this is the grimace birthday milkshake. A user took TikTok by storm by acting deceased after drinking the milkshake and made the product go viral as it allowed content creators to take part of the trend increasing McDonald’s revenue across America.


McDonald’s includes a wide range of marketing and communication tactics and adapts the message based on geographic and culture relevance. McDonald’s had to grow its marketing channels and ideas to create demand for its products by staying up to date with new marketing channels, its uses and overall technology.

Product Images & References

Wallpapercave. (n.d) McDonald’s logo wallpaper. Wallpapercave website. Available at: https://wallpapercave.com/w/wp11260432 [Accessed 06/11/2023]

Burger King. (n.d) Good for our Planet. Burger King blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.burgerking.co.uk/good-for-our-planet-case-studies [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Dezeen. (2021) McDonald’s unveils graphic packaging to reflect brand’s “playful point-of-view” [photograph]. Dezeen website. Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2021/02/18/mcdonalds-packaging-playful-graphics-pearlfisher/ [Accessed 10/06/2023]

Edison High School. (n.d) Picture of McDonalds 1950’s product menu [photograph]. Edison High School website. Available at: https://ehs70classreunion.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Picture6.jpg [Accessed 26/10/2023]

Istock. (2014) McDonald’s Meal Stock Photo [photograph]. Istock website. Available at: https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mcdonalds-meal-gm524304077-52191814 [Accessed 28/07/2023]

McDonald’s. (n.d) McDonald’s McCafe coffee McDonald’s showcasing McDonald’s new product line and brand [photograph]. McDonald’s official website. Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/mccafe.html [Accessed 17/11/2023]

McDonald’s. (n.d) The McDonald’s Story. McDonald’s official website. [Online] Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-company/who-we-are/our-history.html [Accessed 17/11/2023]

Seo Agency China. (2022) McDonald’s adapts to its Chinese customers [photograph]. SEO Agency China website. Available at: https://seoagencychina.com/mcdonalds-adapts-to-its-chinese-customers/ [Accessed 04/06/2023]

Veganfoodandliving. (2023) McDonald’s adding vegan options in 2023 attempting to gain a position within the vegan target market [photograph]. Veganfoodandliving website. Available at: https://www.veganfoodandliving.com/features/mcdonalds-vegan-menu-options/ [Accessed 04/06/2023]

Product Bibliography

Business Insider. (2018) The Bestselling McDonald’s menu items of all time. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/the-bestselling-mcdonalds-menu-items-of-all-time-2018-2?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 02/06/2023]

Business Insider. (2019) Sneaky Ways Fast Food Restaurants Get You To Spend Money. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VooHiweb1sw [Accessed 13/06/2023]

Business Insider. (2019) I tried to order 9 things from McDonald’s ‘secret menu’ – but it was a much bigger challenge than I expected. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/mcdonalds-secret-menu-items-review-2019-5?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 17/07/2023]

Business Insider. (2016) 11 photos that show how McDonald’s has changed since the 1950s. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/mcdonalds-bags-through-history-2016-1?r=US&IR=T#:~:text=The%20packaging%20featured%20an%20early,design%20was%20used%20until%201968.&text=Cardboard%20hamburger%20boxes%20were%20introduced%20in%20the%201970s.&text=McDonald’s%20switched%20to%20foam%20packaging,its%20breakfast%20menu%20was%20expanding [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Business In the Community UK. (2022) Minimizing Waste and reusable packaging. Business In the Community blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.bitc.org.uk/case-study/burger-king-uk-minimising-waste-with-reusable-packaging/ [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Business Insider. (2018) McDonald’s is making a big change to its soft drinks in 2018. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/mcdonalds-ditches-foam-cups-packaging-2018-1?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Corporate McDonald’s. (2020) The History and Evolution of McDonald’s Packaging. Corporate McDonald’s blog. [Online] Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-stories/article/Packaging-History.html [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Cooper, R. (2016) Finally, KFC is launching a breakfast menu in the UK. Joe blogs. [Online] Available at: https://www.joe.co.uk/news/finally-kfc-is-launching-a-breakfast-menu-in-the-uk-90614 [Accessed 17/07/2023]

Delish. (2021) McDonald’s Menu Ranked: From McNuggets to McFlurry. Delish blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.delish.com/uk/food-news/g36556915/mcdonalds-menu-ranked/ [Accessed 04/06/2023]

Econsultancy. (2019) How food brands are taking a bite out of the meat-free movement. Econsultancy blog. [Online] Available at: https://econsultancy.com/food-brands-meat-free-vegan-marketing-strategy/ [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Food Business News. (2018) McDonald’s bringing menu innovation to breakfast “battleground”. Food Business News blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/12752-mcdonalds-bringing-menu-innovation-to-breakfast-battleground [Accessed 16/07/2023]

Frank. (2020) BK Meltdown. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7lmk-V6p6Q [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Good Mythical Morning. (2022) McDonald’s vs. Burger King Taste Test | Food FEUDS. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5TV5t0mJ0A [Accessed 24/07/2023]

Kenton, W. (2023) Inferior Good: Definition, Examples, and Role of Customer Behaviour. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/inferior-good.asp [Accessed 20/09/2023]

Kenton, W. (2021) Product Family: What it Means, Overview and Examples. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/product-family.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

Kopp, C. (2021) Product Differentiation: What It Is, How Business Do It, and the 3 Main Types. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/product_differentiation.asp [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Liveabout. (2020) The History of Fast Food Breakfast. Liveabout blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.liveabout.com/history-of-fast-food-breakfast-1350969 [Accessed 17/07/2023]

Mashed. (2022) The Untold Truth Of Burger King’s Breakfast. Mashed blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.mashed.com/170741/the-untold-truth-of-burger-kings-breakfast/ [Accessed 17/07/2023]

McDonald’s. (2023) McDonald’s Menu: Our Full McDonald’s Food Menu. McDonald’s official website. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/full-menu.html [Accessed 02/06/2023]

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McDonald’s. (n.d) McDonald’s Japan Menu. McDonald’s Japan website. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.co.jp/en/menu/set/ [Accessed 16/07/2023]

Metro. (2022) McDonald’s axes two breakfast menu items for good – and fans are not pleased. Metro news article. [Online] Available at: https://metro.co.uk/2022/01/24/mcdonalds-axes-two-breakfast-menu-items-for-good-fans-are-not-happy-15976159/ [Accessed 16/07/2023]

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Twin, A. (2022) Product Lines Defined and How They Help a Business Grow. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/product-line.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

Price Images & References

Adage. (2021) McDonald’s rewards program My McDonald’s debuts with free fries for all. [photograph] Adage blog. Available at:  https://adage.com/article/marketing-news-strategy/mcdonalds-rewards-program-mymcdonalds-debuts-free-fries-all/2349131 [Accessed 09/06/2023]

Boyle, T. (2005) First McDonalds Franchise Recalls Fast-Food Giants Beginnings. [photograph]. Gettyimages. Available at: https://www.gettyimages.be/detail/nieuwsfoto%27s/the-price-board-hangs-inside-the-mcdonalds-usa-first-nieuwsfotos/52630918?language=fr [Accessed 06/06/2023]

Mobile-Cuisine. (2023) Updated McDonald’s Menu Prices: Breakfast, Meals, and Drinks. [photograph]. Mobile-Cuisine website. Available at: https://mobile-cuisine.com/menu/mcdonalds-menu-prices/ [Accessed 06/06/2023]

InvoiceBerry. (2017) Competitive pricing is very common, such as McDonald’s and Burger King’s respective value menus. [photograph]. Available at: https://www.invoiceberry.com/blog/small-businesses-pricing-strategies/ [Accessed 05/06/2023]

Lifestyle of Katie. (2021) I only ate EAT OUT TO HELP OUT FOOD for 24 HOURS!! 50% OFF McDonald’s, Nando’s, KFC, Costa Coffee. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBe-2maxeN0 [Accessed 09/02/2024]

Price Bibliography

Banton, C. (2022) What is Pricing Power? Definition, How It Works, and Example. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/pricingpower.asp [Accessed 20/09/2023]

Bhushan, R. (2015) Price war begins: Dunkin ‘ Donuts aims to give tough competition to McDonald’s and Burger King. The Economic Times blog. [Online] Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/cons-products/food/price-war-begins-dunkin-donuts-aims-to-give-tough-competition-to-mcdonalds-and-burger-king/articleshow/46801493.cms [Accessed 07/06/2023]

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Cole, H. (2021) Here’s How McDonald’s Coffee Compares to Starbucks. Mashed blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.mashed.com/328530/heres-how-mcdonalds-coffee-compares-to-starbucks/ [Accessed 27/10/2023]

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Place Images & References

Corporate McDonald’s. (n.d) McDonald’s History Picture of the First McDonald’s Restaurant [photograph]. Corporate McDonald’s website. Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-company/who-we-are/our-history.html [Accessed 30/10/2023]

Istock. (2013) People walking past and into McDonalds restaurant on the edge of Leicester Square, London on a late Autumn Day [photograph]. Istock. Available at: https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/mcdonalds-gm458285417-29537326 [Accessed 13/06/2023]

McDonald’s Singapore. (2020) McDonald’s – How to use the new McDonald’s app. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7GnzTa0DpsU [Accessed 09/02/2024]

Statistica. (2023) McDonald’s – statistics & facts. Statistica. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/1444/mcdonalds/#topicOverview [Accessed 13/06/2023]

Place Bibliography

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Promotion Images & References

Corporate McDonald’s. (2019) Take a look at our new Times Square Restaurant Design [photograph]. Corporate McDonald’s website. Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-stories/article/new_restaurant.html [Accessed 17/06/2023]

Insider Food. (2023) US vs China McDonald’s | Food Wars | Insider Food. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=BF9PeV8PHVw [Accessed 27/06/2023]

McDonald’s UK. (2019) Peely Peely Is Coming | Monopoly | TV Ad | McDonald’s UK. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m-USs7LeXIs [Accessed 26/11/2023]

RMHC. (2020) Ronald McDonald House Charities. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sVjjHHPvow [Accessed 26/11/2023]

Shorty Awards. (n.d.) McDonald’s Geofilters Entered In Snapchat [photograph]. Shorty Awards. Available at: https://shortyawards.com/8th/mcdonalds-geofilters [Accessed 14/01/2024]

Dixon, S. (2023) Number of daily active Snapchat users from 2nd quarter 2014 to 3rd quarter 2023 [photograph]. Statistica. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/545967/snapchat-app-dau/ [Accessed 17/01/2024]

Promotion Bibliography

Burger King. (n.d) Burger King Rewards. Burger King official website. [Online] Available at: https://www.burgerking.co.uk/rewards/details [Accessed 31/07/2023]

Business Queensland. (2022) Managing public relations and the media. Business Queensland blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/running-business/marketing-sales/marketing/activities/public-relations#:~:text=Public%20relations%20is%20about%20managing,attract%20customers [Accessed 21/06/2023]

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Dollarhide, M. (2023) Brand Loyalty: What It Is, and How to Build it. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-media.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

Downey, L. (2023) Press Release: What is it, How it Works, Pros and Cons. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/pressrelease.asp [Accessed 21/06/2023]

Fernando, J. (2023) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Explained with Examples. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/corp-social-responsibility.asp [Accessed 17/09/2023]

Forbes. (2020) McDonald’s Credits ‘Peak Absurdist Gen Z Humor’ For Grimace Shake TikTok Trend. Forbes blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/conormurray/2023/07/12/mcdonalds-credits-peak-absurdist-gen-z-humor-for-grimace-shake-tiktok-trend/?sh=1e06a2161468 [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Forsey, C. (2022) Creating Your Brand Voice: A Complete Guide. Hubspot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/brand-voice?hubs_content=blog.hubspot.com%2Fmarketing%2Fwhat-is-brand-perception&hubs_content-cta=%2520brand%2520positioning [Accessed 24/09/2023]

Hayes, A. (2023) Brand Equity: Definition, Importance, Effect on Profit Margin, Examples. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brandequity.asp [Accessed 19/09/2023]

Hart, M. (2023) 16 Examples of Positioning Statements & How to Craft Your Own. Hubspot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/sales/positioning-statement?hubs_content=blog.hubspot.com%2Fmarketing%2Fwhat-is-brand-perception&hubs_content-cta=%2520brand%2520positioning [Accessed 24/09/2023]

Hubspot Marketing. (2023) Competitive Advantage: Make Your Brand Stand Out (Free Guide!). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPqEdQDraho [Accessed 23/09/2023]

Joseph, S. (2014) McDonald’s takes McCafe brand into supermarkets. Available at: https://www.marketingweek.com/mcdonalds-takes-mccafe-brand-into-supermarkets/ [Accessed 26/10/2023]

Kenton, W. (2022) What Is Brand Recognition? Why It’s Important and Benefits. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brand-recognition.asp [Accessed 17/09/2023]

Kenton, W. (2023) Brand: Types of Brands and How to Create a Successful Brand Identity. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brand.asp [Accessed 17/09/2023]

Kopp, C. (2022) What is Brand Awareness? Definition, How It Works, and Strategies. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brandawareness.asp [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Kopp, C. (2023) Brand Loyalty: What It Is, and How to Build it. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brand-loyalty.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

Maybray, B. (2023) Color Psychology: How To Use it in Marketing and Branding. Hubspot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/the-hustle/psychology-of-color?hubs_content=blog.hubspot.com%2Fmarketing%2Fbrand-colors&hubs_content-cta=color%20psychology [Accessed 23/09/2023]

McAlone, N. (2015) Snapchat just turned its popular geofilters into ad units, and McDonald’s is already on board. Business Insider. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/snapchat-wants-you-to-brand-your-posts-with-a-mcdonalds-filter-2015-6?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 14/01/2024]

Mobile Marketing Association. (n.d) Burger King Monopoly Madness. Mobile Marketing Association article. [Online] Available at: https://www.mmaglobal.com/case-study-hub/upload/pdfs/mma-2012-444.pdf [Accessed 23/06/2023]

National Cup Recycling Scheme. (n.d) National Cup Recycling Scheme About Us Page. National Cup Recycling Scheme website. [Online] Available at: https://www.cuprecyclingscheme.co.uk/about-us [Accessed 31/07/2023]

Patel, N. (n.d) Brand Perception: What is it & How Do We Measure it. Neil Patel blog. [Online] Available at: https://neilpatel.com/blog/how-to-improve-brand-perception/ [Accessed 25/09/2023]

Patel, S. (2022) A Complete Guide to Successful Brand Positioning. Hubspot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/sales/brand-positioning-strategy?hubs_content=blog.hubspot.com%2Fmarketing%2Fwhat-is-brand-perception&hubs_content-cta=%20brand%20positioning [Accessed 23/09/2023]

RMHC. (n.d) Ronald McDonald House Charities About us Page. RMHC. [Online] Available at: https://rmhc.org/about-us/Learn-about-RMHC [Accessed 28/11/2023]

Shopify. (2022) What Is Direct Marketing? Definition and Guide. Shopify blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.shopify.com/uk/blog/what-is-direct-marketing#:~:text=What%20do%20you%20mean%20by,phone%20calls%2C%20and%20direct%20mail [Accessed 21/06/2023]

Simplilearn. (2023) 9 Types of Digital Marketing: When and How to Use Them? Simplilearn blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.simplilearn.com/types-of-digital-marketing-article [Accessed 14/09/2023]

The Investopedia Team. (2023) What Impact Does Brand Equity Have on Profit? Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/021715/what-impact-does-brand-equity-have-profit-margins.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

People Images & References

BC Productions. (2023) Why McDonald’s Has Their Own College. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-H4odC1rpw [Accessed 31/12/2023]

Greenberg, J. (2014) Australia Fortitude Valley Chinatown McDonald’s fast food restaurant employee cash register customer [photograph]. Getty Images. Available at: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/australia-queensland-brisbane-fortitude-valley-chinatown-news-photo/543535566?adppopup=true [Accessed 30/12/2023]

McDonald’s (2023) McDonald’s virtual chat system and customer service [photograph]. Available at: https://customerservices.mcdonalds.co.uk/hc/en-gb/ [Accessed 30/12/2023]

McDonald’s (2020) McDonald’s Government Framework and Organizational structure [photograph]. McDonald’s website. Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/content/dam/sites/uk/nfl/pdf/corporate-governance-framework-2020.pdf [Accessed 11/07/2023] (please see slide 18)

McDonald’s. (2021) Salaried Employee Handbook. McDonald’s official website. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/content/dam/sites/uk/nfl/pdf/uploads/careers/Salaried-Employee-Handbook-Office.pdf [Accessed 27/06/2023] (please see slide 9)

People Bibliography

BBC News. (2023) McDonald’s workers speak out over abuse at fast food chain – BBC News. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8iVtHvgKJEw [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Corporate McDonald’s. (2019) Celebrating and Advancing Women at McDonald’s. Corporate McDonalds website. [Online] Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-stories/article/celebrating_women.html [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Heskett, J. (2022) Firing McDonald’s Easterbrook: What Could the Board Have Done Differently? Harvard Business School blog. [Online] Available at: https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/firing-mcdonalds-easterbrook-what-could-the-board-have-done-differently [Accessed 12/07/2023]

McDonald’s. (n.d) Employee Discount Terms and Conditions. McDonald’s official webpage. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/gb/en-gb/terms-and-conditions/employee-discount-terms-and-conditions.html [Accessed 27/06/2023[

McDonald’s Careers. (n.d) Why Work Here. McDonald’s official webpage. [Online] Available at: https://people.mcdonalds.co.uk/why-work-here [Accessed 01/07/2023]

McDonald’s Careers. (n.d) What We Offer. McDonald’s official webpage. [Online] Available at: https://people.mcdonalds.co.uk/what-we-offer [Accessed 01/07/2023]

McDonald’s. (2018) What’s the structure of McDonald’s and how each department in the organisation interacts / works together? McDonald’s official webpage. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/gb/en-gb/help/faq/whats-the-structure-of-mcdonalds-and-how-each-department-in-the-organisation-interacts-works-together.html [Accessed 01/07/2023]

Statistica. (2023) Number of McDonald’s employees worldwide from 2012 to 2022. Statistica blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/819966/mcdonald-s-number-of-employees/ [Accessed 01/07/2023]

Stec, C. (2021) Customer Perception: What It Is, Why It’s Important, and How to Improve it. HubSpot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/service/improve-customer-perception?hubs_content=blog.hubspot.com%2Fmarketing%2Fwhat-is-brand-perception&hubs_content-cta=consumer%20brand%20perception [Accessed 24/09/2023]

Thompson, A. (2022) McDonald’s Organizational Structure & Its Characteristics – An analysis. Panmore Institute blog. [Online] Available at: https://panmore.com/mcdonalds-organizational-structure-analysis [Accessed 11/07/2023]

University of Houston. (n.a) Raymond Albert Kroc. University of Houston blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.uh.edu/hilton-college/About/Hospitality-Industry-Hall-of-Honor/Inductees/Raymond-Albert-Kroc%20/ [Accessed 31/10/2023]

WXYZ-TV Detroit | Channel 7. (2017) McDonald’s worker with special needs retiring after 33 years on the job. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sH_GFHX51ss [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Process Images & References

Chantri Juanderers. (2023) McDonald’s POV Drive Thru Window Person. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iyajn-nWuPE [Accessed 09/02/2024]

Stephen Patula. (2022) McDonald’s Training | Cheeseburger. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DtLd7xCbHzg [Accessed 26/11/2023]

Smith Collection. (2022) McDonald’s App. Getty Images [photograph]. Getty Images.Available at: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/persons-hand-holding-an-iphone-displaying-the-mcdonalds-app-news-photo/1400436491?adppopup=true [Accessed 24/12/2023]

Lott, J. (2018) McDonald’s Corp. Unveils New Headquarters [photograph]. Getty Images. Available at: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/customers-place-an-order-on-a-kiosk-at-the-restaurant-news-photo/967401628?adppopup=true [Accessed 04/12/2023]

Process Bibliography

Business Insider. (2020) Burger King’s new 2021 restaurants will have food lockers, conveyor belts that delivers Whoppers to your car, and modern, minimalist dining areas. Take a Look Inside. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/burger-king-new-stores-2021-food-lockers-conveyor-belts-burgers-2020-10?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Business Wire. (2020) Burger King Unveils New Restaurant Designs for Enhanced Guest Experience in COVID World. Business Wire blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200903005182/en/Burger-King%C2%AE-Unveils-New-Restaurant-Designs-for-Enhanced-Guest-Experience-in-COVID-World [Accessed 28/07/2023]

Hayes, A. (2023) What Is a POS System and How Does It Work? Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/point-of-sale.asp [Accessed 17/09/2023]

Evoke. (n.d) Case Study: McDonald’s. Evoke blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.evoke-creative.com/projects/mcdonalds [Accessed 07/11/2023]

Mashed. (2023) The First Ever McDonald’s & What It Was Like To Eat There. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sr6J76yqtXE [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Prince Castle. (n.d) Prince Castle’s official website page. Prince Castle. [Online] Available at: https://mcd.princecastle.com/about-us/ [Accessed 24/12/2023]

Simpson, M. (2023) McDonald’s to Remove Self-Serve Soda Machines. People blog. [Online] Available at: https://people.com/mcdonalds-to-remove-self-serve-soda-machines-7968759 [Accessed 26/10/2023]

RareHistoricalPhotos. (n.d) Old McDonald’s: Historical Photos, Vintage Advertisements and the Original Menus, 1950-1980s. RareHistoricalPhotos blog. [Online] Available at: https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/mcdonalds-old-photos/ [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Sozzi, B. (2015) McDonald’s Turns 75 – What It Could Learn From Its First Store in the 40’s. The Street blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.thestreet.com/investing/mcdonalds-turns-75-what-it-could-learn-from-its-first-store-in-the-40s-13153162 [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Physical Evidence Images & References

Corporate McDonald’s. (2023) Meet the Team Making McDonald’s Restaurants more Modern, Sustainable, and Welcoming [photograph]. Corporate McDonald’s blog. Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-stories/article/meet-team-making-modern-sustainable-mcd.html [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Corporate McDonald’s. (n.d) First McDonald’s Illinois restaurant built in 1955 [photograph]. Corporate McDonald’s blog. Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-company/who-we-are/our-history.html [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Honeysett, R. (n.d) Modern Interior and exterior design in new McDonald’s Hong Kong restaurant [photograph]. Rosshoneysett.com. Available at: https://www.rosshoneysett.com/#20 [Accessed 15/06/2023] (Hover over the middle of the photograph and keep clicking right)

Physical Evidence Bibliography

Dezeen. (2015) Hong Kong McDonald’s pilots “an experiment in non-design”. Dezeen blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2015/12/17/mcdonalds-admiralty-hong-kong-branch-landini-associates-experiment-in-non-design/ [Accessed 15/06/2023]

Sherlock Studio (2016) McDonald’s Next – a new store concept in Hong Kong. Sherlock Studio blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.sherlockstudio.co.uk/mcdonalds-next-a-new-store-concept-in-hong-kong/ [Accessed 15/06/2023]

TheDailywoo. (2018) Oldest Operating McDonalds Restaurant In The World. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjVDXQ6aSo0 [Accessed 27/07/2023]

Task 2 - Written Report References

Brandle, L. (2020) Travis Scott Scores New McDonald’s Ad, Drops Capsule Collection [photograph]. Billboard. Available at: https://www.billboard.com/pro/travis-scott-scores-mcdonalds-ad-capsule-collection/ [Accessed 17/11/2023] (Picture used for blog post).

Full Nelson. (2020) The Travis Scott Meal – McDonald’s Official Commercial. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYATyMUM0RI [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Kotler, P. Wong, V. Saunders, J. And Armstrong, G. (2005) Principles of Marketing – Fourth European Edition. Pearson Education Limited.

McDonald’s (2020) McDonald’s Government Framework and Organizational structure [photograph]. McDonald’s website. Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/content/dam/sites/uk/nfl/pdf/corporate-governance-framework-2020.pdf [Accessed 11/07/2023] (please see slide 10)

Similarweb. (2023) Travisscott.com. Similarweb blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.similarweb.com/website/travisscott.com/#traffic-sources [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Statistica. (2023) McDonald’s advertising costs worldwide from 2014 to 2022. Statistica blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/286541/mcdonald-s-advertising-spending-worldwide/ [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Task 2 - Written Report Bibliography

Destefano, M. (2020) Top 10 Travis Scott x McDonald’s Merch Items. Complex blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.complex.com/style/a/mike-destefano/best-travis-scott-cactus-jack-mcdonalds-merch-items [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Mckinnon, T. (2023) McDonald’s Marketing Strategy, 5 Reasons Why It’s Working. Indigo blog [Online] Available at: https://www.indigo9digital.com/blog//mcdonaldsmarketingstrategy#:~:text=One%20of%20the%20major%20marketing,Scott%20and%20BTS%20enjoy%20eating [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Smilgius, V. (2021) Travis Scott fans need to re-evaluate their relationship with the artist. The Berkley Beacon blog. [Online] Available at: https://berkeleybeacon.com/travis-scott-fans-need-to-re-evaluate-their-relationship-with-the-artist/ [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Taylor, K. (2020) McDonald’s Travis Scott campaign is a brilliant marketing ploy that creates massive buzz – without adding a single menu item. Business Insider blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/mcdonalds-travis-scott-campaign-is-a-brilliant-marketing-ploy-2020-9?r=US&IR=T [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Wright, J. (2023) How Travis Scott’s Community Building Strategy Pushed Him to New Heights. Snobhop blog. Available at: https://snobhop.substack.com/p/how-travis-scotts-community-building [Accessed 05/11/2023]

Marketing Mix and General Marketing Bibliograph

Adobe. (n.d) How to make a marketing proposal template. Adobe blog. Available at: https://www.adobe.com/acrobat/hub/how-to-marketing-proposal-template.html [Accessed 17/10/2023]

Allen, A. (2023) Understanding the 7Ps of The Marketing Mix. Oxford College of Marketing blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.oxfordcollegeofmarketing.com/2020/10/08/understanding-the-7ps-of-the-marketing-mix/ [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Banton, C. (2022) Shareholders vs. Stakeholder: What’s the Difference? Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/08/difference-between-a-shareholder-and-a-stakeholder.asp [Accessed 17/09/2023]

Brenner, M. (2022) What Is Marketing? Marketing Insider Group blog. [Online] Available at: https://marketinginsidergroup.com/strategy/what-is-marketing/?tstamp=07ca6f59926388ae0bfa88da288f306a3239c3fd [Accessed 02/08/2023]

Bordon, N. (n.d) The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Harvard Business School. [Online] Available at: https://www.guillaumenicaise.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Borden-1984_The-concept-of-marketing-mix.pdf?tstamp=67270348cee5b7dcfb2f7eb7e77401a0ccbfaae1 [Accessed 04/08/2023]

Big Think. (2023) Master divergent and convergent thinking | Tiago Forte. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsccvWvHgyQ [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Big Think. (2021) Lateral thinking: How to workshop innovative ideas | Dan Seewald | Big Think. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yM6m83Umjs [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Corporate Finance Institute. (2023) Market Positioning. Corporate Finance Institute blog. [Online] Available at: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/management/market-positioning/ [Accessed 16/08/2023]

Digital Marketing Blogger. (n.d) Extended Marketing Mix. Digital Marketing Blogger blog. [Online] Available at: https://digitalmarketingblogger.co.uk/extended-marketing-mix.html [Accessed 10/06/2023]

Easy Marketing. (2023) 7ps marketing mix examples: 7ps of marketing with example. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZMxRjgljxko [Accessed 28/08/2023]

Ehmke, C. Fulton, J. Lusk, J. (n.d) Marketing’s Four P’s: First Steps for New Entrepreneurs. Purdue University. [Online] Available at: https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ec/ec-730.pdf [Accessed 17/10/2023]

Farrall, C. Lindsley, M. (n.d) Professional English in Use Marketing. Cambridge University. [Online] Available at: https://assets.cambridge.org/97805217/02690/excerpt/9780521702690_excerpt.pdf [Accessed 19/10/2023]

Harvard Business School. (n.d) Unique Value Proposition. Harvard Business School. [Online] Available at: https://www.isc.hbs.edu/strategy/creating-a-successful-strategy/Pages/unique-value-proposition.aspx [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Indeed. (2023) Market Offering: What it is and How To Create One. Indeed blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/marketing-offering [Accessed 12/09/2023]Indeed. (2023) The 4P’s of Marketing (With 3 Examples To Review). Indeed blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/4-ps-of-marketing-examples [Accessed 12/09/2023]

Kenton, W. (2023) Marketing Mix: The 4Ps of Marketing and How to Use Them. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketing-mix.asp [Accessed 02/06/2023]

Kenton, W. (2023) Market: What It Means in Economics, Types, and Common Features. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/market.asp [Accessed 20/09/2023]

Kenton, W. (2022) What Is a Tangible Asset? Comparison to Non-Tangible Assets. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tangibleasset.asp [Accessed 20/09/2023]

Londre Marketing. (2023) Marketing, the Marketing Mix (4P’s) and the Nine P’s. Londre Marketing. [Online] Available at: https://www.londremarketing.com/documents/LondreMarketingConsulting-NinePs.pdf?tstamp=1f2d23df64ffecd6fd05a4ed51bff5d3cd99a401 [Accessed 02/06/2023]

Leaders Talk. (2023) 7 Ps of Marketing | Marketing Mix For Services. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ij39z2P_aQI [Accessed 27/08/2023]

Maybray, B. (2023) Color Psychology: How To Use it in Marketing and Branding. Hubspot blog. [Online] Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/the-hustle/psychology-of-color [Accessed 18/07/2023]

Moving Targets. (2019) Why is Marketing SO important. Moving Targets blog. [Online] Available at: https://movingtargets.com/blog/business-marketing/why-marketing-is-so-important/ [Accessed 12/09/2023]

Neus Soler. (2016) Marketing 3.0 – Philip Kotler. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u677XwSimes [Accessed 15/08/2023]

Pathak, R. (2022) The 4PS of Marketing: Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Analyticssteps blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.analyticssteps.com/blogs/4ps-marketing-product-price-place-and-promotion [Accessed 14/09/2023]

Product Marketing Alliance. (n.d) What is market positioning. Product Marketing Alliance blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.productmarketingalliance.com/your-guide-to-positioning/ [Accessed 16/08/2023]

Qiang Lyu. (2020) Philip Kotler – The Father of Modern Marketing-Keynote Speech-The Future of Marketing. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WPetPmlN1Iw&t=667s [Accessed 24/09/2023]

Rathod, M. (2016) A Study on Extended Marketing Mix. Research Gate. [Online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maulik-Rathod-2/publication/366500902_A_Study_on_Extended_Marketing_Mix_p-ISSN_2394-1545_e-ISSN_2394-1553/links/63a446f303aad5368e30c409/A-Study-on-Extended-Marketing-Mix-p-ISSN-2394-1545-e-ISSN-2394-1553.pdf [Accessed 12/07/2023]

Rotella, M. (2021) 10 Excellent Content Marketing Examples to Inspire Your Strategy. Terakeet blog. [Online] Available at: https://terakeet.com/blog/content-marketing-examples/ [Accessed 12/09/2023]

Tardi, C. (2023) Repeat Sales: Meaning, Measurement, E-Commerce. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketeconomy.asp [Accessed 22/09/2023]

Segal, T. (2023) Profit Margin: Definition, Types, Uses in Business and Investing. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/profitmargin.asp [Accessed 24/08/2023]

Simplilearn. (2023) Top 7 Best Marketing Campaigns: All You Need To Know. Simplilearn blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.simplilearn.com/best-marketing-campaigns-article [Accessed 12/09/2023]

Twin, A. (2023) Value Proposition: How to Write It With Examples. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Twin, A. (2023) How To Do Market Research, Types and Examples. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/market-research.asp [Accessed 16/09/2023]

Thabit, T. Manaf, R. (2018) The Evaluation of Marketing Mix Elements: A Case Study. SSRN. [Online] Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3173274 [Accessed 19/10/2023]

The Investopedia Team. (2022) What Is a Market Economy and How Does It Work? [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marketeconomy.asp [Accessed 20/09/2023]

Ueland, S. (2022) 11 Outstanding Digital Media Campaigns From 2021. Practicalecommerce blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.practicalecommerce.com/11-outstanding-digital-media-campaigns-from-2021 [Accessed 14/09/2023]

Wellington, E. (2022) How to Write a Value Proposition (+6 Modern Examples). Help Scout blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.helpscout.com/blog/value-proposition-examples/#:~:text=customer%20support%20tool.-,What%20is%20a%20value%20proposition%3F,by%20giving%20you%20their%20business [Accessed 16/09/2023]

McDonald's Research Bibliography

CaliforniaThroughMyLens.com (n.d) The Original McDonald’s: A Museum in San Bernardino. CaliforniaThroughMyLens blog. [Online] Available at: https://californiathroughmylens.com/original-mcdonalds-museum-san-bernardino/ [Accessed 01/07/2023]

McCain, A. (2023) 22 McDonald’s Statistics [2023] Counts, Facts, and Trends. Zippia. [Online] Available at: https://www.zippia.com/advice/mcdonalds-statistics/ [Accessed 02/06/2023]

Corporate McDonald’s. (n.d) McDonald’s History. Corporate McDonald’s website. [Online] Available at: https://corporate.mcdonalds.com/corpmcd/our-company/who-we-are/our-history.html [Accessed 10/06/2023]

Ganti, A. (2022) How McDonald’s Makes Money. Investopedia blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/markets/032015/how-mcdonalds-makes-its-money-mcd.asp [Accessed 02/06/2023]

Industrial Industries World Radio. (2022) History of McDonald’s 1938-Today (Full Documentary). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tOsm2_JAT4 [Accessed 23/08/2023]

Klein, C. (2015) How McDonald’s Beat Its Early Competition and Became an Icon of Fast Food. History blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.history.com/news/how-mcdonalds-became-fast-food-giant [Accessed 09/06/2023]

McDonald’s. (n.d) McDonald’s Facts and Story. McDonald’s official website. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/about-us.html [Accessed 04/06/2023]

McDonald’s. (n.d) Your First Steps on Your U.S Franchisee Journey. McDonald’s official website. [Online] Available at: https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/us-franchising.html [Accessed 30/07/2023]

Statistica. (2023) McDonald’s – statistics & facts. Statistica blog. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/1444/mcdonalds/#topicOverview [Accessed 02/06/2023]

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